1147 – Reconquista: Forces under Afonso I of Portugal captured Lisbon from the Moors after a four-month siege in one of the few Christian victories during the Second Crusade.
1760 – George III (pictured) became King of Great Britain and Ireland.
1927 – A propeller shaft on the Italian cruise liner SS Principessa Mafalda broke and fractured the hull, sinking it and resulting in 314 deaths.
1950 – Korean War: The Chinese People’s Volunteer Army ambushed the South Korean II Corps, marking China’s entry into the war.
2010 – Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that lasted over a month.